The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is one of the most important defects in diamond, in particular in the negatively charged (NV-) state. We are particularly interested in the electronic and nuclear spins of this center, which can be used for quantum information processing, as well as for sensing applications. These applications use the excellent stability of the center and the long relaxation times, which allow sufficient time for implementing quantum information tasks or using the spin for sensing applications. Additional details are given in this review article.

The electron spin of the NV center has large hyperfine coupling with the 13C nuclear spin of the first coordinate shell, which is particularly attractive for implementing fast multiqubit quantum gates. However, full exploitation of this interaction for any application requires precise knowledge of the hyperfine tensor. We determined this tensor accurately by a detailed analysis of experimental data including measurements of electronic and nuclear spin transitions for different orientations of the static magnetic field. The nuclear spin transition, which is important for a precise determination of the transverse components of the hyperfine tensor, was measured by a Raman-excitation and detection scheme. From the analysis of the experimental data, we could determine the principal values and the orientation of the hyperfine tensor with respect to the atomic structure of the NV center.

[1] Robust dynamical decoupling for arbitrary quantum states of a single NV center in diamond

J. H. Shim, I. Niemeyer, J. Zhang and D. Suter

EPL (Europhysics Letters) 99, 40004 (2012)

[2] Room-temperature high-speed nuclear-spin quantum memory in diamond

J. H. Shim, I. Niemeyer, J. Zhang and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. A 87, 012301 (2013)

[3] Broadband excitation by chirped pulses: application to single electron spins in diamond

I. Niemeyer, J. H. Shim, J. Zhang, D. Suter, T. Taniguchi, T. Teraji, H. Abe, S. Onoda, T. Yamamoto, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya and F. Jelezko

New J. Phys. 15, 033027 (2013)

[4] Experimental Implementation of Assisted Quantum Adiabatic Passage in a Single Spin

J. Zhang, J. H. Shim, I. Niemeyer, T. Taniguchi, T. Teraji, H. Abe, S. Onoda, T. Yamamoto, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 240501 (2013)

[5] High-Precision Nanoscale Temperature Sensing Using Single Defects in Diamond

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya and J. Wrachtrup

Nano Letters 13, 2738-2742 (2013)

[6] Protected Quantum Computing: Interleaving Gate Operations with Dynamical Decoupling Sequences

J. Zhang, A. M. Souza, F. D. Brandao and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 050502 (2014)

[7] Experimental Protection of Two-Qubit Quantum Gates against Environmental Noise by Dynamical Decoupling

J. Zhang and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 110502 (2015)

[8] Characterization of hyperfine interaction between an NV electron spin and a first-shell 13C nuclear spin in diamond

K. R. K. Rao and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. B 94, 060101 (2016)

[9] Characterization of hyperfine interaction between an NV electron spin and a first-shell 13C nuclear spin in diamond

K. R. K. Rao and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. B 94, 060101 (2016)

[10] Single-spin magnetic resonance in the nitrogen-vacancy center of diamond

D. Suter and F. Jelezko

Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 98-99, 50 - 62 (2017)

[11] Nonlinear dynamics of a two-level system of a single spin driven beyond the rotating-wave approximation

K. R. K. Rao and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. A 95, 053804 (2017)

[12] Polarizing the electronic and nuclear spin of the NV-center in diamond in arbitrary magnetic fields: analysis of the optical pumping process

T. Chakraborty, J. Zhang and D. Suter

New Journal of Physics 19, 073030 (2017)

[13] Orientation-independent room temperature optical 13C hyperpolarization in powdered diamond

A. Ajoy, K. Liu, R. Nazaryan, X. Lv, P. R. Zangara, B. Safvati, G. Wang, D. Arnold, G. Li, A. Lin, P. Raghavan, E. Druga, S. Dhomkar, D. Pagliero, J. A. Reimer, D. Suter, C. A. Meriles and A. Pines

Science Advances 4, (2018)

[14] Enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization via swept microwave frequency combs

A. Ajoy, R. Nazaryan, K. Liu, X. Lv, B. Safvati, G. Wang, E. Druga, J. A. Reimer, D. Suter, C. Ramanathan, C. A. Meriles and A. Pines

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , (2018)

[15] Dynamics of frequency-swept nuclear spin optical pumping in powdered diamond at low magnetic fields

P. R. Zangara, S. Dhomkar, A. Ajoy, K. Liu, R. Nazaryan, D. Pagliero, D. Suter, J. A. Reimer, A. Pines and C. A. Meriles

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116, 2512--2520 (2019)

[16] CVD growth of ultrapure diamond, generation of NV centers by ion implantation, and their spectroscopic characterization for quantum technological applications

T. Chakraborty, F. Lehmann, J. Zhang, S. Borgsdorf, N. Wöhrl, R. Remfort, V. Buck, U. Köhler and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. Materials 3, 065205 (2019)

[17] Hyperpolarized relaxometry based nuclear T1 noise spectroscopy in diamond

A. Ajoy, B. Safvati, R. Nazaryan, J. T. Oon, B. Han, P. Raghavan, R. Nirodi, A. Aguilar, K. Liu, X. Cai, X. Lv, E. Druga, C. Ramanathan, J. A. Reimer, C. A. Meriles, D. Suter and A. Pines

Nature Communications 10, 5160 (2019)

[18] Optimal photon energies for initialization of hybrid spin quantum registers of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

K. Rama Koteswara Rao, Y. Wang, J. Zhang and D. Suter

Phys. Rev. A 101, 013835 (Jan.2020)

[19] Integrated and Portable Magnetometer Based on Nitrogen-Vacancy Ensembles in Diamond

F. M. Stürner, A. Brenneis, T. Buck, J. Kassel, R. Rölver, T. Fuchs, A. Savitsky, D. Suter, J. Grimmel, S. Hengesbach, M. Förtsch, K. Nakamura, H. Sumiya, S. Onoda, J. Isoya and F. Jelezko

Advanced Quantum Technologies 4, 2000111 (2021)

[20] Magnetic-Field-Assisted Spectral Decomposition and Imaging of Charge States of $\mathrmN$-$V$ Centers in Diamond

T. Chakraborty, R. Bhattacharya, V. S. Anjusha, M. Nesladek, D. Suter and T. S. Mahesh

Phys. Rev. Applied 17, 024046 (2022)

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